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 Atyrau

The seaport on the Caspian Sea and the landing stage on the Ural River (former Gurev) was found as the fishing settlement by fishermen at the mouth of the Ural in 1615. In 1992 it was renamed in Atyrau. In the beginning of the ХХ century Gurev was the remote chief town of uyezd and had the only one industry – fishing.  Then the railway was constructed, and it influenced on city development. The city is located not far from the place of the Ural confluence into the Caspian Sea.
The characteristic feature: the city is located in two parts of the earth: Samara side (right bank of the Ural River) – in Europe, and Bukhara (left bank) – in Asia. The city was found in 1615 by the entrepreneur Mikhail Gurev, who asked the tsar,  Mikhail Fedorovich, the decree on the monopoly of fishing sturgeon at the mouth of the Ural. Gurev promised to build the city fortress to defend against attacks and to supply red caviar to the tsar table.
In 1668 Guryev was owned by Stepan Razin for a short time. The population of the city is more than 140,000 people. The city was built on the beach, but now it stands separately from it at a distance of 25-30 kilometers. The first oil-refining factory and the plant of oilfield equipment were built in the city.  The tomb of the Kazakh national composer Kurmangazy Sagyrbaev (1806-1879) is in Atyrau. 50 kilometers north of the city there is the ancient settlement Saraydzhuk (XVI – XVII centuries), not far from of which the routes from Europe to Asia meet.
Today Atyrau is the organizing center of oil industry of Ural-Emben region. The first oil-refining  factory and the  plant of oilfield equipment were built here. The largest fish cannery of the Republic was built in Atyrau.