History of Kazakhstan
The history of Kazakhstan is full of great achievements. The chronicles point on the origin of the Kazakh statehood by the end of the XV century, when the sultans Kereyu and Janibek could join the separate tribes, which wandered around the Semirechie and the valley Chu. Supposedly, the word “kazakh” itself one should understand as “nomad” (“kas” means “to walk, to move”). The united by khans tribes moved to Moghulistan and got the name “the kazakhs”. The Kazakh kingdom was formed, and since that time the history of Kazakhstan began its count.
The history of Kazakhstan tells that the Kazakh khanate was developing very successfully, and at the beginning of the XVI century the ruler Kasymkhan joined such significant cities as Otrar, Turkestan, Shymkent, Sygnak, Suzak, Sauran. The khanate became famous enough outside the steppes, it became known in Europe and Asia – and it existed till 1716. After the death of Taukekhan (last ruler) the khanate fell to small pieces, each of which was headed by the steppe khan. In the history of Kazakhstan these times were the most troubled and hard for the people. The decline and separation lasted until the annexation of the country into the Imperial Russia.
After 1917 the lands of Kazakhstan got a new name – the Kazakh SSR.
After the attempted coup in Moscow in August 19, 1991 the decision to disband the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR was accepted, and Kazakhstan began a rapid path to independence and sovereignty, confirmed by the Independence Act of 16 December 1991. Thus, in the international arena, a new state led by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan appeared. The main orientations of the country were democracy, legal and social orientation of the state where the greatest value is a person and person’s life. In August 30, 1995 – Kazakhstan adopted the current Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the national referendum.
The Republic of Kazakhstan became the full member of the international community, got the gratitude and support of the absolute majority of the states in the world. For today Kazakhstan is appreciated by 113 states, 105 of which maintain the diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan.
Today one can state a fact of deep cooperation, intercommunication with many famous organizations, such as UN, European Union, International and European development banks, International Monetary Fund, UNICEF, UNESCO and etc. The Republic of Kazakhstan is a member of more than 40 international Conventions; Kazakhstan signed about 400 multipartite and 700 bilateral contracts and agreements.
In 1997 the decision to move the capital from Almaty to Akmola was adopted. The reason was the geopolitical and economical significance of the development of Kazakhstan.
And finally, the “Program of the development of Kazakhstan till 2030” was worked out and accepted for the performance.